Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a bollor protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, Egypt and India.
The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile.
The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated to the fifth millennium BC have been found in the Indus Valley Civilizationas well as fabric remnants dated back to BC in Peru.
Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or million bales annually, accounting for 2.
India is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were widely used before the s. While cotton fibers occur naturally in colors of white, brown, pink and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the later medieval era at transformatively lower prices. The earliest evidence of the use of cotton in the Old worlddated to BC and preserved in copper beads, has been found at the Neolithic site of Mehrgarhat the foot of the Bolan Pass in BalochistanPakistan.
In Perucultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish.
The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Greatas his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica".
According to the Columbia Encyclopedia : . Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries.InoCottonGROW – Water Footprint of the Cotton-Textile Industry in Pakistan
In Iran Persiathe history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era 5th century BC ; however, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in MervRay and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets ' poems, especially Ferdowsi 's Shahnamethere are references to cotton "panbe" in Persian.
Marco Polo 13th century refers to the major products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardina French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persiaspoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia.
Egyptians grew and spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, and was then introduced to other countries from there. The Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century.
This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power. The earliest clear illustrations of the spinning wheel come from the Islamic world in the eleventh century.
During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant.
Because Herodotus had written in his HistoriesBook III,that in India trees grew in the wild producing wool, it was assumed that the plant was a tree, rather than a shrub. This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in several Germanic languages, such as German Baumwollewhich translates as "tree wool" Baum means "tree"; Wolle means "wool".
Noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep.Between andtextile production was second only to agriculture in economic importance. It employed more people and produced more profit than any other manufactured product.
Production and trade existed at two levels. Everywhere peasants and villagers turned locally grown wool and flax into fabric and clothing for themselves and their neighbors. The cloth they produced was of poor quality and not designed for export to distant markets. On top of this local market sat a large and lucrative luxury trade in silk, wool, linen, and eventually cotton fabric, the most important of which were heavy woolens.
The customers for these fabrics were wealthy landowners, government and church officials, merchants, financiers, aristocrats, and master craftsmen in EuropeAsia and the Levant.
Ireland and the Baltic region supplied much of Europe's flax, although it was widely grown and available. In the sixteenth century, Venice and other Italian cities acquired silkworms and mulberry trees, and began silk manufacturing. At the same time, cotton thread and fabric began to arrive from India and became wildly popular.
Most important of all the textile industries was the trade in raw wool and wool fabric. Sheep raising abounded everywhere.
In the fifteenth century, the best fleeces came from England. In the sixteenth century, Spanish merino sheep knocked English sheep into second place. French sheep were considered to produce the third best wool. Two types of wool fabric were produced in Europe — woolens and worsteds.
Of the two, the market for woolens was by far the larger. Woolens were made from short-staple wool fibers that were swirled together before spinning. The cloth had a soft-textured appearance and feel. Worsteds were made from long-staple wool and had a harder, smoother finish. Soft woolens were considered far more desirable than the harsher worsteds and dominated the wool trade. Turning raw wool into fabric was a long, complicated process. The sheep's fleece was sheared in one continuous piece, rolled, sacked, and sold to merchants drapers or clothiers or their agents.
The fleeces were dirty and greasy, not uniform, and far from ready for spinning and weaving. Fleece breakers opened up the fleece and removed the large pieces of debris that were caught in it.The history of cotton can be traced to domestication.
Cotton played an important role in the history of Indiathe British Empireand the United Statesand continues to be an important crop and commodity. The history of the domestication of cotton is very complex and is not known exactly.
All the same tools were invented, including combs, bows, hand spindlesand primitive looms. This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the later medieval era at transformatively lower prices.
The oldest cotton textiles were found in graves and city ruins of civilizations from dry climates, where the fabrics did not decay completely. It is here that Gossypium barbadense is thought to have been domesticated at its earliest. Seeds and cordage dating to about BCE have been found in Peru. The latest archaeological discovery in Mehrgarh puts the dating of early cotton cultivation and the use of cotton to BCE. Herodotusan ancient Greek historian, mentions Indian cotton in the 5th century BCE as "a wool exceeding in beauty and goodness that of sheep.
Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, and was then introduced to other countries from there. The Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century. This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power. The earliest clear illustrations of the spinning wheel come from the Islamic world in the eleventh century. The earliest unambiguous reference to a spinning wheel in India is dated tosuggesting that the spinning wheel was invented in the Islamic world and later introduced from Iran to India.
Egyptians grew and spun cotton from 6— CE. Cotton was a common fabric during the Middle Agesand was hand-woven on a loom.
Cotton manufacture was introduced to Europe during the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. The knowledge of cotton weaving was spread to northern Italy in the 12th century, when Sicily was conquered by the Normansand consequently to the rest of Europe. The spinning wheelintroduced to Europe circaimproved the speed of cotton spinning.When Confederate artillery opened up on the Union garrison at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor on April 12,it marked the beginning of an exceptionally bleak chapter in U.
S history. Over the next four years, roughlyAmericans were killed, and millions of others were injured or made destitute. The south was reduced to a weakened state ravaged by war and no longer able to thrive on the free labor provided by the pernicious institution of slavery. S, the price of cotton very soon went through the roof. Now, the Civil War imperilled everything for the moneymakers on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
It took just a couple of weeks after the outbreak of hostilities in South Carolina for farmers the world over to realize the scope of the bounty that had landed in their lap. Agricultural laborers from Australia and India to the West Indies ditched wheat and other food staples and hastily planted up their fields with cotton. Prices had risen by up to percent. No one, however, seized on the opportunity quite like the Egyptians, who had just a few decades beforehand freed themselves from almost years of direct Ottoman rule.
Under the ambitious leadership of Muhammed Alian Albanian soldier who had seized power in and is widely considered the founder of modern Egypt, the country had already embraced cotton as a valuable cash crop. The discovery 40 years beforehand of a fine long-staple variety by a visiting French engineer — a Monsieur Jumel — meant that Egypt was also well on its way to building a reputation for high-quality cotton, which linen-makers rave about to this day.
But now, with prices continuing to soar and desperation high in northern England as the mills of Manchester exhausted the excess supply left over from a bumper American harvest ofauthorities in Cairo moved with extraordinary speed to ramp up additional production. InEgypt had only exportedcantars of cotton a traditional measurement equal to about poundsbut by it had more than doubled this to almost 1.
With its foothold on the Mediterranean, it was much closer to Liverpool than its competitors, and to the ports at Marseille and Trieste, through which France and the Austro-Hungarian Empire funneled cotton north to their mills. And certainly few countries could rival the Nile Valley and Delta, once considered the breadbasket of the Roman Empire, for shear agricultural pedigree.
So determined was he to satisfy the needs of European cloth merchants that he even commandeered Nile barges to transport cotton downriver to the sea when floods temporarily cut off the railway tracks in With their unexpected new prosperity, some villagers paid dowries or went on the pilgrimage to Mecca.
But as the trade evolved, and cotton morphed into even more of a money-spinning opportunity, life for the fellaheen peasants took an unpleasant turn for the worse. For just as the expansion in the trafficking of slaves to the southern United States is often explained in part by the pick up in cotton production, so too the arrival of this tremendously labor intensive crop in Egypt led to the introduction of a variation of the feudal system.
Farmers who had previously spent much of their time planting land that was for all intents and purposes theirs, now found themselves pressed into work on large estates.
Where once poorer townspeople had had access to cheap produce, soon they discovered that the cultivation of cotton at the expense of food meant much higher prices for fruits and vegetables. Between February and August alone, 12, more foreigners arrived than left, Owen writes, with Greeks the largest group among them. Intent on securing business for their nationals, European governments rushed to open up missions throughout the Delta and Upper Egypt.
Even Minya, a now struggling and somewhat isolated city to the south of Cairo, once boasted a U. S consulate due to its proximity to valuable cotton stocks. This influx was in itself not terrible as the foreigners brought with them considerable expertise to a country still clawing its way back from centuries of stagnation.
They also orchestrated much of the redevelopment of Alexandria, which had slumped badly in size and grandeur since the days of Cleopatra and the Ptolemiesand financed the construction of several Cairo neighborhoodswhose names still hark back to their cotton baron patrons.
Additionally, the end of the American Civil War in led to a steep fall in global cotton prices as the U. It created a sharp budget deficit and ultimately a declaration of national bankruptcy a decade later.
As the overwhelmed Egyptian treasury bounded from one crisis to another, the European and Syro-Lebanese communities set about snapping up much of the cotton trade.Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. He was a military commander in an Albanian Ottoman force sent to recover Egypt from a French occupation under Napoleon.
He also initiated a violent purge of the Mamluksconsolidating his rule and permanently ending the Mamluk hold over Egypt. Militarily, Muhammad Ali recaptured the Arabian territories for the sultan, and conquered Sudan on his own accord. His attempt at suppressing the Greek rebellion failed decisively, however, following an intervention by the European powers at Navarino.
InMuhammad Ali waged war against the sultancapturing Syria, crossing into Anatolia and directly threatening Constantinople but Western Powers threatened him to retreat. He did the same invasion against the Ottoman Empire inwhen he defeated again the Ottomans and had a free way to capture Istanbul. Faced with another European intervention, he accepted a brokered peace in and withdrew from the Levant; in return, he and his descendants were granted hereditary rule over Egypt and Sudan.
The dynasty he established would rule Egypt until the revolution of When his father died at a young age, Muhammad was taken and raised by his uncle with his cousins. As a reward for Muhammad Ali's hard work, his uncle gave him the rank of " Bolukbashi " for the collection of taxes in the town of Kavala. She was the daughter of Ali Agha and Kadriye, sister of Zeynep.
After Muhammad's promising success in collecting taxes, he gained Second Commander rank under his cousin Sarechesme Halil Agha in the Kavala Volunteer Contingent of Rumelian mercenaries that was sent to re-occupy Egypt following General Napoleon Bonaparte's withdrawal. The expedition consisting of Xebec landed at Aboukir in the spring of The French withdrawal left a power vacuum in Egypt. Mamluk power had been weakened, but not destroyed, and Ottoman forces clashed with the Mamluks for power.
During the infighting between the Ottomans and Mamluks between andMuhammad Ali carefully acted to gain the support of the general public.
Inthough, Ali exiled Makram to Damietta. By appearing as the champion of the people Muhammad Ali was able to forestall popular opposition until he had consolidated his power. The Mamluks still posed the greatest threat to Muhammad Ali. They controlled Egypt for more than years, and over that time they extended their rule systematically south along the Nile River to Upper Egypt. Muhammad Ali's approach was to eliminate the Mamluk leadership, then move against the rank and file.
Muhammad Ali invited the Mamluk leaders to a celebration at the Cairo Citadel in honour of his son, Tusun Pashawho was to lead a military expedition into Arabia. The event was held on 1 March When the Mamluks had gathered at the Citadel, and were surrounded by Muhammad Ali's troops, he had his troops kill them.This sample Muhammad Ali Memet Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only.
If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research papersee the lists of research paper topicsand browse research paper examples. With the Mamluks and the Ottomans in disarray, the French troops also withdrew after the defeat of the French fleet at Abu Qir, leaving a political vacuum. He successfully filled this vacuum by creating a power base in the villages, and by joining forces with local clerics and merchants in Cairo.
He removed three successive governors sent from Istanbul. Appointed wali or Ottoman viceroy of Egypt inMuhammad Ali used brutal methods to establish his control over Egypt, including breaking the power of the Mamluks by massacring their leaders in Regarded as the founder of modern Egypt, he created a dynasty that ruled Egypt until Recognizing that modern political power rests on a modern, disciplined army, Muhammad Ali conscripted peasants from Upper Egypt to train them in the Napoleonic army system.
He undertook a number of military campaigns, but his military and dynastic ambitions were thwarted by British, French, or Russian intervention. These powers had their own designs on the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire, and their interests were not compatible with the strategic objectives of Muhammad Ali. Between andhe conquered the Sudan in search of gold and slaves, founding the city of Khartoum in Although his troops were relatively effective, the Ottoman navy was destroyed at the Battle of Navarino in To fund his military reforms, Muhammad Ali established long-staple cotton as a cash crop and modernized Egyptian agriculture for cotton production to supply the British textile industry.
To secure his rule and to support cotton production, he confiscated the lands of the ruling class, made large land grants to his own family, and reclaimed uncultivated land, thereby creating a new landed class to support his political rule.
His modernization program also included the reform of educational institutions, the creation of a teaching hospital, the building of roads and canals, the construction of state factories, and the development of a shipbuilding foundry at Alexandria. These industrial developments provided the military platform that led Muhammad Ali to invade Greater Syria in and again in Alarmed by his success, the British intervened, blocked the Nile Delta and defeated him at Beirut.
In the Treaty of London inhe surrendered Crete and Hijaz and abandoned his military ambitions; in return, he and his descendants were given hereditary rule over Egypt.
He died inbeing buried in the Muhammad Ali Mosque in the Citadel of Cairo, the mosque that he had commissioned. Muhammad Ali was the last of the military adventurers who periodically seized power in the Ottoman provinces, giving their military domination a mask of legitimacy by creating a dynasty. He was fortunate to rule in a period of Ottoman decline, taking advantage of French military officers to modernize his army.
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Research Paper Examples. History Research Paper Examples. Special offer! Promo code: cd1a Related Posts.The history of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty — spanned the later period of Ottoman Egyptthe Khedivate of Egypt under British patronage, and the nominally independent Sultanate of Egypt and Kingdom of Egyptending with the Revolution of and the formation of the Republic of Egypt.
The process of Muhammad Ali's seizure of power was a long three way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamluksand Albanian mercenaries. It lasted from to with the Albanian Muhammad Ali Pasha taking control of Egypt inwhen the Ottoman Sultan acknowledged his position. Thereafter, Muhammad Ali was the undisputed master of Egypt, and his efforts henceforth were directed primarily to the maintenance of his practical independence.
Ottoman-Saudi war in —18 was fought between Egypt under the reign of Muhammad Ali nominally under Ottoman rule and the Wahabbis of Najd who had conquered Hejaz from the Ottomans. Acknowledging the sovereignty of the Ottoman Sultan, and at the commands of the Ottoman Portein Muhammad Ali dispatched an army of 20, men and 2, horses under the command of his son Tusuna youth of sixteen, against the Saudis in the Ottoman—Saudi War.
After a successful advance this force met with a serious repulse at the Battle of Al-Safraand retreated to Yanbu. In the end of the year Tusun, having received reinforcements, again assumed the offensive and captured Medina after a prolonged siege.
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
He next took Jeddah and Meccadefeating the Saudi beyond the latter and capturing their general. But some mishaps followed, and Muhammad Ali, who had determined to conduct the war in person, left Egypt in the summer of —leaving his other son Ibrahim in charge of the country. He encountered serious obstacles in Arabia, predominantly stemming from the nature of the country and the harassing mode of warfare adopted by his adversaries, but on the whole his forces proved superior to those of the enemy.
He deposed and exiled the Sharif of Mecca and after the death of the Saudi leader Saud he concluded a treaty with Saud's son and successor, Abdullah I in Following reports that the Turks, whose cause he was upholding in Arabia, were treacherously planning an invasion of Egypt, and hearing of the escape of Napoleon from Elba and fearing danger to Egypt from France or Britain, Muhammad Ali returned to Cairo by way of Kosseir and Kenareaching the capital on the day of the Battle of Waterloo.
Tusun returned to Egypt on hearing of the military revolt at Cairobut died in at the early age of twenty. Muhammad Ali, dissatisfied with the treaty concluded with the Saudisand with the non-fulfillment of certain of its clauses, determined to send another army to Arabia, and to include in it the soldiers who had recently proved unruly. This expedition, under his eldest son Ibrahim Pashaleft in the autumn of The war was long and arduous but in Ibrahim captured the Saudi capital of Diriyah.
Abdullah Itheir chief, was made prisoner and with his treasurer and secretary was sent to Istanbul in some references he was sent to Cairowhere, in spite of Ibrahim's promise of safety and of Muhammad Ali's intercession in their favor, [ citation needed ] they were put to death. At the close of the year Ibrahim returned having subdued all opposition in Arabia. While the process had begun inMuhammad Ali's representative at Cairo had completed the confiscation of almost all the lands belonging to private individuals, while he was absent in Arabia — The former owners were forced to accept inadequate pensions instead.
By this revolutionary method of land nationalization Muhammad Ali became proprietor of nearly all the soil of Egypt. During Ibrahim's engagement in the second Arabian campaign, the pasha turned his attention to further strengthening the Egyptian economy, and his control over it. He created state monopolies for the chief products of the country, and created a number of factories.
In he began digging the new Mahmoudiyah Canal to Alexandria, named after the reigning Sultan of Turkey. The old canal had long fallen into decay, and the necessity of providing a safe channel between Alexandria and the Nile was much felt. The conclusion of the commercial Treaty of Balta Liman in between Turkey and Britain, negotiated by Sir Henry Bulwer Lord Darlingstruck the death knell to the system of monopolies, though its application regarding Egypt was delayed for some years, and finally included foreign intervention.
Another notable addition to the economic progress of the country was the development of cotton cultivation in the Nile Delta starting in The cotton seed for the new crop had been brought from the Sudan by Maho Beyand with the organization of the new irrigation and industry, Muhammad Ali was able to extract considerable revenue in a few years time.